Battery management system
State of Charge (SOC) Estimation Method for Lithium-ion Battery Cell
The SOC representing the amount of charge in the battery cell is the most important factor because it directly relates to the number of miles that an EV can travel. Unlike the terminal voltage and current, there is no way to measure the SOC directly. Therefore, there should be an advanced method for the SOC estimation.
 Kim, Woo-Yong, Lee, Pyeong-Yeon, Kim, Jonghoon, and Kim, Kyung-Soo. “A Nonlinear-Model-Based Observer for a State-of-Charge Estimation of a Lithium-Ion Battery in Electric Vehicles.” Energies, vol. 12, no. 17, 2019.